CODE OF ETHICS OF THE
MICHIGAN SPEECH-LANGUAGE-HEARING ASSOCIATION
The preservation of the highest standards of integrity and ethical principles is vital to the successful discharge of the responsibilities of all members. This Code of Ethics has been promulgated by the Association in an effort to highlight the fundamental rules, and is considered essential to this basic purpose. The failure to specify any particular responsibility or practice in the Code of Ethics should not be construed as denial of the existence of other responsibilities or practices that are equally important. Any act that is in violation of the spirit and purpose of this Code of Ethics shall be unethical practice. It is the responsibility of each member to advise the appropriate governing board of instances of violation of the principles incorporated in the code.
SECTION A. CLIENT RELATIONSHIPS
The ethical responsibilities of the member require that the welfare of persons served professionally be considered paramount.
1. The member who engages in paid professional clinical work must possess appropriate qualifications.
- The member may provide only those services for which proper training has been received i.e., necessary course work and supervised practicum.
- The member who has not completed professional preparation must not provide language, speech, or hearing services except in a supervised clinical practicum situation as a part of a training program.
- The member who utilizes paraprofessionals must directly supervise their activities.
2. The member must follow acceptable patterns of professional conduct in relationships with the people served.
- Results of any language, speech or hearing consultation or therapeutic procedure must not be guaranteed. Although a reasonable statement of prognoses and/or progress may be made, any guarantee of any sort, expressed or implied, oral or written, is unethical.
- A member who is receiving a salary or fee for providing services to a person or group of persons may not receive an additional fee fro alternative or supplemental services unless authorized to do so by his/her primary employer.
- Diagnosis, treatment, or re-evaluation of individual language, speech or hearing disorders must not be done correspondence or by telephone. This does not preclude follow-up correspondence of individuals previously seen, nor does it preclude providing the persons served professionally with general information of an educational nature.
e. Persons served professionally must not be exploited:
(1) by accepting them for professional language, speech or hearing services which for any reasonare contraindicated;
(2) by continuing treatment unnecessarily;
(3) by charging exorbitant fees.
3. The member must use every reasonable resource available, including referral to other specialists as
needed to effect as great improvement as possible in the persons served.
4. The member must take every precaution to avoid injury to each person served professionally.
SECTION B. PROFESSIONAL RELATIONSHIPS
The duties of individual members related to other professional workers are many.
1. Each individual member should seek participation in open and significant professional discussion of all
theoretical and practical issues, but avoid personal invective directed toward professional colleagues or
members of allied professions.
2. Each member should establish harmonious relations with members of others professions. Others should
be informed concerning the services that can be rendered by members of the speech and hearing
profession and in turn, information should be sought from members of related professions. Each member
should strive to increase knowledge within the field of speech and hearing.
SECTION C. OTHER RESPONSIBILITIES
The member has other special responsibilities:
1. Each individual member must guard against conflicts of professional interest.
a. Compensation, in any form, must not be accepted from a manufacturer or a dealer in prosthetic or other
devices for recommending any particular product.
b. Individuals may announce and/or may make known professional clinical services in a manner
consistent with professional standards established in the State of Michigan for medical, dental,
psychological and related professions. Services for which an individual has not received professional
training may not be stated or offered. Individuals may announce and/or make known consultive services
in published listings under the categories for which adequate professional training has been completed,
and in a manner consistent with professional standards established in the State of Michigan for medical,
dental, psychological and related professions.
c. Individuals must not engage in commercial activities that conflict with responsibilities to the persons
served professionally, or to colleagues.
d. Individuals who dispense products to persons served professionally shall observe the following
(1) Products associated with professional practice must be dispensed to the person served as a part of
a program of comprehensive habilitative care.
(2) Fees established for professional services must be independent of whether a product is dispensed.
(3) Persons served must be provided freedom of choice for the source of services and products.
(4) Price information about professional services rendered and products dispensed must be
disclosed by providing to, or posting for, persons a complete schedule of fees and charges in
advance of rendering services, with differentiation between fees for professional services and
charges for products dispensed.
(5) A program to assure the effective use of the product dispensed must be provided to the client.
(6) The individual dispensing such products must comply with the requirements of the State of
Michigan for dispensing such product.
2. Individuals should help in the education of the public regarding language, speech, and hearing problems,
and other matters within their area of professional competence.
3. It is incumbent upon the member to make every reasonable effort to be certain that public information
materials are accurate and complete in their reference to professional standards for such programs.
4. Each member should seek to provide and expand services to persons with language, speech and hearing
impairments, and to assist in establishing high professional standards for such programs.
5. Individuals must not discriminate on the basis of race, age, national origin, religion, sex, sexual orientation,
handicapping condition, gender or gender identification, or color in their professional relationships with
colleagues or clients.
SECTION D. SPECIALIZED CODES
The adherence to this Code by the membership does not prohibit the development of specialized Codes of Ethics related to specific areas of professional activity.
SECTION E. REVISION OF THE CODE OF ETHICS
The Code of Ethics of the Michigan Speech-Language-Hearing Association may be amended by a 2/3 vote of the membership present at a regular Association Business meeting. The proposed amendment shall be announced to each member in writing at least thirty days prior to such a meeting. Proposed amendments/changes may be submitted by the Executive Council, or by any member in good standing.
Revised December 2010
BYLAWS OF THE MICHIGAN SPEECH-LANGUAGE-HEARING ASSOCIATION*
ARTICLE I - MEMBERSHIP
SECTION I. Eligibility.
- Application for membership shall be at the highest level for which a person is eligible, in accordance with Article I, Section II.
- Members must agree to abide by the Code of Ethics of the Association.
SECTION II. Membership shall consist of five classes; Professional, Affiliate, Student (CCC), Student (Non-CCC), and Life.
- Professional members must hold: (1) a graduate degree with major emphasis in speech-language pathology, audiology, education of the Deaf/Hard of Hearing, or speech, language, or hearing science; or (2) a graduate degree and present evidence of active research, interest, and performance in the field of human communication, and elected to membership in accordance with those procedures as set forth in Article I, Section III. All members holding a graduate degree (Master's Degree and/or Doctoral Degree) are eligible for and must apply for Professional membership (e.g., teachers of the Deaf/Heard of Hearing, psycholinguists, psychoacousticians, etc.). Professional members shall comprise the voting body of the Association. The right to hold an Executive Board position shall be limited to Professional members.
- Affiliate members shall be those persons in allied fields (e.g., occupational therapy, physical therapy, etc.) who are interested in an affiliation with the Association. Affiliate members may also be those persons not in the speech-language-hearing profession or allied health fields. An example would be advocates, parents, caregivers, and adult consumers that have an interest in the goals of MSHA as it serves the needs of persons with communicative and/or swallowing disorders. Professional members who are currently unemployed are eligible for affiliate membership. Affiliate membership shall not entitle the affiliate member to the rights and privileges of Professional membership.
- Student (CCC) members shall be those persons who are full-time Doctoral level students in speech-language and/or hearing, and who demonstrate their full-time student status by having their college registrar complete the appropriate documentation (e.g., MSHA Graduate Membership Discount Request Form). The individual in this membership category shall not work full-time or part-time as a speech-language pathologist or audiologist while enrolled in the full-time Doctoral program. The definition of full-time student status shall be left to the discretion of the appropriate college or university. Student (CCC) members found working in a part-time or full-time clinical setting shall pay Professional Member fees/dues. Student (CCC) membership shall not entitle the Student (CCC) member to the rights and privileges of Professional membership.
- Student (Non-CCC) members shall be those persons who are full-time students in training in speech-language and hearing, or education of the Deaf/Hard of Hearing, and who demonstrate their full-time student status by having their college advisor or other appropriate faculty member verify this status. The definition of full-time student shall be left to the discretion of the appropriate college or university. Student membership shall not entitle the student member to the rights and privileges of Professional membership.
- Life members shall be persons who have retired from the profession after a minimum of 10 years of professional service and who have held Professional membership (formerly known as “Active” membership) for a minimum of 10 years. Candidates for Life membership shall be proposed by any member of the Association and elected by the Executive Board. Waiver of dues will be made for this membership category. Life members are voting members of the Association.
SECTION III. Membership Application Procedure.
- Candidates for membership shall submit their application to the Vice-President for Membership. A candidate will be accepted for membership when it is determined that the candidate has met the criteria for the level of membership for which application was made.
- Application for membership in the Association may be rejected by a majority of the Executive Board. The name of the candidate who does not meet the criteria for membership will be brought to the Executive Board, who will approve or reject the candidate's application.
- The case of a rejected applicant may be presented to the membership for review. The application may be approved for membership by a majority of those voting.
SECTION IV. Dues and Fees.
- AMOUNT - Membership dues shall be recommended by the Executive Board and approved by a majority vote of the members present at the regular annual Business Meeting, provided that announcement of such proposed vote is made to each member in writing at least 30 days prior to the meeting. The Association also shall be supported by other dues and fees as shall be recommended by the Executive Board.
- WAIVER OF DUES - Membership dues, registration fees, and all other forms of dues or fees may be waived in whole or in part by the Executive Board.
- NON-PAYMENT OF DUES - The name of any member whose dues are in arrears on May 1 shall be dropped from the membership roll by the Treasurer after three notices of dues delinquency have been sent to the member. Such a member will be returned to the membership rolls upon the renewal of membership for which he/she is qualified without penalty.
SECTION V. Discontinuance of Membership.
All members of MSHA have an obligation to report unethical conduct to the ASHA Ethics Board and/or Michigan Licensure Board. If a MSHA member has questions regarding ethical principles, the MSHA Committee on Ethics may be consulted for resources to clarify the questions.
If the Executive Board of MSHA is aware that a member of MSHA has been sanctioned by ASHA Ethics Board or Michigan State Licensure Board, the MSHA Executive Board can choose by a 2/3 vote to reduce the member’s status from Professional membership to Affiliate membership, or revocation of membership, for the duration of the sanction. In the event such a vote is taken, the Executive Board will prepare a formal letter 1) acknowledging awareness of this sanction and stating the outcome of the MSHA Executive Board vote, and 2) recommending MSHA and ASHA resources for continued professional development in the area of ethical practice.
If a member of the Executive Board has been sanctioned by the ASHA Ethics Board or Michigan State Licensure Board, the Executive Board can chose, by a 2/3 vote, to revoke the member’s status as a board member to an Affiliate membership (without voting rights) for the duration of the sanction.
ARTICLE II - EXECUTIVE BOARD
SECTION I. Board Composition.
The Executive Board of the Association shall consist of a President, a President-Elect, a Past-President, a Secretary, a Treasurer, a Vice President for Public Relations, a Vice President for Advocacy, a Vice President for Membership, a Vice President for Professional Development, a Vice President-Elect for Professional Development, Vice President for SLP-Public Schools, Vice President for SLP-Healthcare, and a Vice President for Audiology Practice.
SECTION II. Qualifications.
Professional members in good standing are eligible to be nominated for an Office or appointed to the advisory assembly of the association. A member may be nominated for office by a Professional member of MSHA who is in good standing, or may self-nominate. The Association shall not discriminate on the basis of race, national origin, religion, age, sex, sexual orientation, handicapping condition, gender, or gender identification. All programs and activities of the Association shall be conducted in furtherance of this policy.
SECTION III. Nominations.
An electronic call for nominations will be issued in October of each year. Completed nomination forms must be received at the MSHA Office in November of the same year. The signature of a potential nominee must appear on the nomination form and indicates a willingness to be nominated for office, and, if elected, to serve as an officer of the Association. Each nominee's eligibility status will be verified. A slate of nominees will be prepared by the Administrative Staff and reviewed by the MSHA President, President-Elect, and Immediate Past President. Ballots will be distributed to Professional members in good standing in December of the same year, and are to be returned by January 10 of the following year. A final report of the elections will be made to the membership at the annual conference.
SECTION IV. Elections.
- Presidents of the association serve for three years: one as President-Elect, one as President, and one as Past-President. A President-Elect is elected every year. The Vice-President for Professional Development serves two years: one as Vice-President Elect for Professional Development and one as Vice-President for Professional Development. Every year a Vice-President Elect for Professional Development is elected. These terms shall begin on the final day of the annual conference following the election.
- All other officers shall be elected to serve a two year term beginning on the final day of the annual conference following the election. The Treasurer, Vice-Presidents for SLP-Public Schools, Public Relations, and Advocacy shall be elected for terms beginning in years ending in even numbers. The Secretary, Vice-Presidents for Audiology Practice, SLP-Healthcare, and Membership will be elected for terms beginning in years ending in odd numbers.
SECTION V. Duties.
The Executive Board shall have general charge and control of the affairs, funds and property of the Association. The powers and duties of the Executive Board are described in the Policy and Procedure manual. Each member of the executive board shall sign a letter of intent annually confirming their commitment to their fiduciary duties during the March Board meeting at convention.
SECTION VI. Removal from Office.
Any member may institute recall charges against an officer whose conduct is felt to be contrary to the principles of ethics set forth in the Association's Code of Ethics or whose performance in office is considered unsatisfactory. Such charges shall be submitted in writing to the Ethics Committee. The Ethics Committee shall investigate these charges. The charged officer shall be invited to discuss the charges before a vote is taken. If the accused officer is voted guilty of the charges by a written ballot by a 2/3 vote of the Executive Board, such an officer shall be recalled from office. The officer may petition the Executive Board to have a full review of the charges placed on the agenda for the next Executive Board Meeting; such a petition must be honored. A written ballot shall be taken at the Executive Board; a 2/3 vote of the Board in attendance at that meeting in favor of the officer will negate the vote of the Executive Board.
SECTION VII. Vacancies on the Executive Board.
- In case of vacancy in the office of President, that office shall be filled by an elected member presently serving on the Executive Board in the following order of succession.
- Vice President for Professional Development
- The President shall appoint a member of the Association to fill a vacancy on the Executive Board to serve until the time of the next election as specified by these Bylaws. The resultant vacancy in the office of President-Elect shall not be filled until the next election.
ARTICLE III – EXECUTIVE BOARD AND ADVISORY ASSEMBLY
SECTION I. General.
The Executive Board is the legally responsible management body and shall exercise general management of the business and operations of the Association, operating in accordance with and administering and implementing the programs and policies established by these Bylaws. The actions of the Executive Board shall be reported to the membership at its annual meeting.
The Advisory Assembly has 16 members including: 10 committee chairs, and 6 members-at-large (appointed by the Executive board). Committee Chairs are appointed by the Executive Board for a 2-year term. The Advisory Assembly shall assist the Executive Board in addressing concerns of professionals working in various work settings, professional development, continuing education, conference programs, student affairs and members at large. In addition, liaisons from the Michigan Speech Language Hearing Foundation (MSHF), Michigan Audiology Coalition (MAC), the 2 ASHA Advisory Council members, and community liaisons with personal interest in the provision of services to individuals with communicative and/or swallowing disorders are invited to attend the combined meeting of the Executive Board/Advisory Assembly.
SECTION II. Composition.
The Executive Board consists of those officers listed in Article II, Section I.
SECTION III. Quorum.
A quorum of an Executive Board meeting is defined as (5) members present in order to conduct any business that is officially binding.
ARTICLE IV - COMMITTEES
SECTION I. The Advisory Assembly shall consist of the following standing committees, chairpersons, and Members-at-Large invited.
- The Audiology Committee.
- The Public Schools Committee
- HealthCare Committee
- The Student Affairs Committee
- The Communications and Networking Committee
- The Continuing Professional Development Committee
- Committee on Ethics
- Committee on Advocacy
- Finance Committee
- Program Committee
- Southeast Michigan
- Southwest Michigan
- NE Michigan
- NW Michigan
- Upper Peninsula
SECTION II. Membership of Committees.
- The Audiology Committee shall consist of the Audiology Committee Chair and other appointed members. A majority of the committee must consist of members who are audiologists. The Audiology Committee Chair reports to the Vice President of Audiology Practice.
- The Public Schools Committee shall consist of the Public Schools Chair, and other appointed members. A majority of the committee shall be comprised of members from the public school setting. The Public Schools Committee Chair reports to the Vice President of SLP-Public Schools.
- The Healthcare Committee shall consist of the Healthcare Committee Chair and other appointed members. A majority of the committee shall be comprised of members with interest and/or expertise in these areas. The Healthcare Committee Chair reports to the Vice President of SLP-Healthcare.
- The Student Affairs Committee shall consist of the Student Affairs Committee Chair and other appointed members. A majority of the committee shall be comprised of students in training. The Student Affairs Committee Chair reports to the Vice-President of Membership.
- The Communications and Networking Committee shall consist of the Communications and Networking Committee Chair and other appointed members appointed by the Committee Chair. The Communications and Networking Committee Chair reports to the Vice-President for Public Relations.
- The Continuing Professional Development Committee shall consist of the Continuing Professional Development Chair and other appointed members including a representative from the Program Committee. The Continuing Professional Development Chair reports to the Vice-President for Professional Development.
- The Ethics Committee shall consist of the Ethics Committee Chair and other appointed members. The Ethics Committee Chair reports to the Past-President.
- The Committee on Advocacy shall consist of the Committee on Advocacy Chair and other appointed members. The Committee on Advocacy Chair shall report to the Vice-President of Advocacy.
- The Finance Committee shall consist of the Finance Committee Chair and other appointed members. The Finance Committee Chair reports to the Treasurer.
- The Program Committee shall consist of the Program Committee Chair(s) and other appointed members, including a representative from the Continuing Professional Development Committee. The Program Committee Chair(s) report to the Vice-President for Professional Development.
SECTION III. Members-at-Large and Liaisons.
- Members-at-Large shall be six (6) persons appointed by the President, representing the NE, SE, NW, SW, and UP regions of the state.
- Members-at-Large shall be voting members of the Advisory Assembly.
- Non-voting members attending the Advisory Assembly may include a liaison from the Michigan Speech Hearing Foundation (MSHF), the Michigan Audiology Coalition (MAC) and the Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology ASHA Advisory Council members.
SECTION IV. Membership on Advisory Assembly.
Members are appointed to the Advisory Assembly by the President after consultation with the appropriate committee chair. All members of the Advisory Council must be Professional members of MSHA who are in good standing. A member in good standing must meet the membership criteria for the level of membership for which he/she applied, and must be current in payment of dues. A standing committee chair may invite additional participants who are not MSHA members to join a standing committee on an ad hoc basis. Such appointees do not have the rights and responsibilities of membership, and may not vote.
SECTION V. Ad Hoc Committees.
- The chair and members are appointed by the President for the purpose of performing a specific function of defined duration. All members of Ad Hoc Committees must be Professional members of MSHA who are in good standing. A member in good standing must meet the membership criteria for the level of membership for which he/she applied, and must be current in payment of dues. An Ad Hoc Committee chair may invite additional participants who are not MSHA members to join that Ad Hoc Committee. Such appointees do not have the rights and responsibilities of membership, and may not vote.
- In addition to Ad Hoc committees, convened to address short-term and specific issues, the Executive Board may establish specific working committees, such as a Nominations Committee or an Honors Committee. The Nominations Committee Chair is the President-Elect or delegated individual and the committee charge is to develop a slate of nominees for election of Executive Board Members. The Honors Committee is convened by the Vice-President of Professional Practice, with a committee charge of identifying and recommending individuals for MSHA’s Honors of the Association or Distinguished Service Award.
ARTICLE V – MEETINGS
SECTION I. Executive Board.
The Executive Board shall meet at least 8 times a year, at such times and places as the President may determine. These meetings could be accomplished either in face-to-face format or via teleconference or web conferencing at the discretion of the Board members. Additional meetings of the Executive Board could be called in the case of “emergency action items” requiring immediate action by the Executive Board. The Executive Board is charged with periodic systematic review of the Association’s finances and office management structure, at a minimum of once every three years.
SECTION II. Advisory Assembly.
The Advisory Assembly would meet with the Executive Board at least 3 times per year (i.e., at MSHA Annual Conference in the spring, a June strategic planning session and a fall planning meeting). Additional meetings of the Advisory Assembly or ad hoc committee meetings of any of the representative groups would occur on an as needed basis to provide exploration of issues and documentation of recommendations to be brought to the Executive Board. Recommendations for action to be considered by the Executive Board will be provided in written form.
SECTION III. Annual Meeting.
There shall be an annual meeting of the Membership of the Association in order to conduct the business of the Association, sponsor educational workshops or conferences, and to further the programs of the Association. Additional meetings may also be scheduled by the Association.
SECTION IV. Conduct.
The annual meeting of the membership of the Association and meetings of the Executive Board shall be conducted in accordance with Robert's Rules of Order.
ARTICLE VI - RECOGNITION AWARDS
SECTION I. Honors and Awards.
Two types of Association awards, Honors of the Association and Distinguished Service Awards, may be awarded to individuals by the Association upon approval by the Executive Board. An Awards Committee shall be comprised of no fewer than 5 members. A recommendation for Association recognition may be made by any Professional member at any time to the Committee. These nominations should include a vita of the person nominated and must include the reasons for the nomination. Any recommendation for recognition must be considered by the Executive Board at a regular meeting prior to the presentation of the award and be approved by three-fourths of the Executive Board.
- Honors of the Association. Honors of the Association shall be awarded to members of the Association in recognition of distinguished contributions in Speech and Language Pathology, Audiology, and/or Education of the Deaf/Hard of Hearing over a substantial period of time. This is the highest award the Association can bestow.
- A Distinguished Service Award shall be presented to an individual for a specific outstanding contribution to the Association or the speech and hearing profession.
- Other committees may establish recognition awards, to be approved by the Executive Board.
ARTICLE VII - LIAISON
SECTION I. Liaison with ASHA Advisory Councilors.
In order to promote interaction and liaison between the Association and individuals elected from Michigan to attend the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Advisory Councils, MSHA will invite the ASHA Advisory Council members from Michigan to attend meetings of the Executive Board/Advisory Assembly. The role of the Councilors at such meetings shall be advisory and informative in nature. Councilors are not eligible to propose motions or vote at Executive Board meetings.
SECTION II. Liaison with Regional Associations.
In order to provide continuing interaction and liaison between the Association and established regional speech and hearing groups, such groups may send representation to the Executive Board meetings, when the following conditions have been met:
- a copy of the group's constitution/bylaws shall be approved and filed at the Association office, and;
- such representation shall be identified in writing to the Association president by the chief officer of the regional group. The role of the representative at such meetings shall be advisory and informative in nature. Such representatives are not eligible to propose motions or to vote at Executive Board meetings.
SECTION III. Liaison with other associations.
In order to provide continuing interaction and liaison between MSHA and other associations, the president may appoint Association members in good standing to serve as representatives to these associations. Such members shall report back to the Executive Board at meetings of the Board. The role of the representatives at Executive Board meetings shall be advisory and informative in nature. Such representatives are not eligible to propose motions or vote at Executive Board meetings.
ARTICLE VIII - AMENDMENTS
The Bylaws of the Association may be amended by a 2/3 majority vote of the membership present at a regular Association business meeting or by a 2/3 majority vote of the membership voting via a mail or e-mail ballot. The proposed amendments to be considered at business meetings shall be announced to each member in writing at least 30 days prior to such meetings. Proposed amendments to be considered via mail or e-mail ballot shall be announced to each member in writing at least 30 days prior to the deadline date for the mail-in vote. Proposed amendments may be submitted by the Executive Board or by any member in good standing.
ARTICLE IX - DISSOLUTION
In the event of dissolution of the Association, the assets of the Association shall be transferred to another Michigan state-wide non-profit organization with similar philosophical goals.
*Adopted by the Association on March 16, 1972, as a major revision of an earlier document, Article VI, Sec. 2 was added to the document on October 20, 1972. Further modifications were made on March 23, 1973, on October 12, 1973, on October 10, 1975, and on March 19, 1976. These Bylaws underwent major revisions which were approved October 14, 1977. Revision of Art. V, Sect. 1 (part C) approved Mar. 1979. Art. VI, Sect. 3 added Mar. 1980. Art. V, Sect. 1 ©) and Art. VII, Sect. 1 revised Mar. 82. Art. I, Sect. (a) and (c), and Art. VII revised, April, 1983. Additional modifications were approved April, 1989. Modifications to Art. IX, Sect. 1 were approved March 20, 1998. Modifications to the Constitution, Article II, Purposes, Sections I and II were approved March, 2001. Modifications to the Bylaws, Article I, Section 3; Article IV, Sections 2, 3 and 4; Article V, Section 1; and Article VI, Section 3, were approved March, 2001. Modification of Bylaws, Section 1 (a) were approved May, 2005. Modification of these bylaws, to reflect a change in governance structure and methods of amending the bylaws, were adopted on March 26, 2010. Bylaw modification to the Executive Board structure, renaming of two Executive Board positions and committees and the addition of a requirement for periodic systematic review of financial and office structure were adopted by membership vote in December, 2010.Minor revisions adopted by the Association on March 22, 2012. Bylaw modification to Article I, Sections I and II; new membership classes added, with other combined;